Y-Bias and Angularity:C

The Dynamics of Self-Organizing Criticality

From the Zero Point to Infinity

David G. Yurth

Donald Ayres, A.E.

August 2005

Entropy as Broken Symmetry

As Bearden rightly shows,[[i]] in particle physics every charged ensemble polarizes the locale of L4 contiguous to it. Each charge is surrounded by virtual charges of opposite sign, resulting in a dipolar ensemble and a highly energetic exchange between the charge and the active vacuum from which it emerges.

The asymmetry of opposite charges (and thus of any di-polarity) is a proven broken symmetry.

* For a broken symmetry that is discovered, something virtual has become observable. In this case, that “something that has become virtual” is virtual energy evolved from the vacuum.

* Virtual EM ([1]) energy from the vacuum is continuously input to the charge’s polarization ensemble, absorbed as a differential change in mass by the charged mass, coherently integrated as that differential mass change, and then re-emitted as observable EM energy.

By extension, this aspect of Y-Bias/Angularity in SOC systems at the Zero Point serves as a universal energy pumping mechanism. This concept provides the mechanism by which energy evolved from the Physical Vacuum is subsequently delivered to and retrieved from all subsequent scales of SOC development and deconstruction at all scales throughout the cosmos. As a whole, the universe operates as a single, complex, open, self-organizing system which is always in total balance.

Primary Scale

This is the scale at which the Zero Point interfaces with and first manifests the organization of ensemble interactions arising within the Physical Vacuum. During the 20th Century, our knowledge regarding finite scales and the properties of the Physical Vacuum has evolved somewhat but is still largely incomplete. The vacuum is popularly considered to be a void, an emptiness, or ‘nothingness.’ This is the definition of a bare vacuum [[ii]]. However, as science has learned more about the properties of space, a new and contrasting description has arisen which physicists call the Physical Vacuum.[[iii]]

Descriptions of the Physical Vacuum

Two competing theories describe the behavior and characteristics of the Physical Vacuum and the Zero Point. These are referred to in the literature as the Quantum Electro-Dynamic (QED) model [[iv]], and the somewhat more recent Stochastic Electro-Dynamic (SED) model [[v]]. Both models arrive at the same conclusions, so the choice between them is one of aesthetics rather than substance. In some cases, the QED model gives results that are easier to visualize, while in other cases the SED model is more useful. Importantly, both come to the same conclusion. Even at absolute zero, the Physical Vacuum exhibits an inherent energy density. The QED model maintains that the Zero-Point reveals its existence through the effects of the fifth scale sub-atomic real particles [Hadrons & Leptons] which emerge from it. By contrast, the SED approach affirms that the Zero Point exists as an interface between the physical world [L4] and the Physical Vacuum’s undifferentiated ‘sea’ of electromagnetic fields or waves.[[vi]] In String or ‘M’ Theory, this ‘sea’ is referred to as the ‘quantum foam.’

Casimir Effects

There is further evidence for the existence of the zero-point energy in this model, as manifest by a phenomenon referred to in the literature as the Casimir Effect. This phenomenon was predicted in 1948 by Hendrik Casimir, a Dutch scientist, and confirmed nine years later by M. J. Sparnaay of the Philips Laboratory in Eindhoven, Holland [[vii]]. The Casimir Effect is demonstrated by juxtaposing two metal plates very close together in a vacuum. When they are as close as possible, a small but measurable force becomes evident that acts to push them together. The SED theory explains this by suggesting that as the metal plates get closer, they end up excluding all wavelengths at the Zero Point between the plates except the very short ones that are sub-multiple harmonics of the plates’ distance apart. In other words, all the long wavelengths of the Zero Point are seen to act on the plates from the outside. The combined radiation pressure of these external waves is said to act to force the plates together.[[viii]]

The surface Casimir Effect demonstrates the existence of the Zero Point as a function of the interaction of electromagnetic waves. Interestingly, Haisch, Rueda, Puthoff and others point out that there is a more microscopic version of the same phenomenon. In the case of closely spaced atoms or molecules, the all-pervasive Zero Point produces short-range attractive forces that are described in the Standard Model as the van der Waals forces. It is these attractive forces that permit real gases, for example, to be turned into liquids. When an ‘ideal’ gas is compressed, it behaves in a precise way. When a real gas is compressed, however, its actual behavior deviates from the ideal equation.

The common objections to the actual existence of the Zero Point center around the idea that it is simply a theoretical construct. However, the presence of both the Casimir Effect and the Zitterbewegung, among other observational evidence, proves the reality of the Zero Point. What is not explained by either of these two models, however, is the set of dynamics by which the interactions they describe actually operate at the primary scale. Further, neither model provides mathematical expressions which address phenomena operating at scales more minute than the level of Fermions, Hadrons or Leptons. When applied to the observed interactions associated with Sub-Quarks [tertiary scale] and Quarks [fourth scale], neither model finds sufficient traction to be useful. The topology intrinsic to the architecture of the models described by Quantum Mechanics is fundamentally limited to the leveled topology allowed by the imposition of the Lorenz Transforms and its reliance on vector mathematics. Again, in Bearden we find,

In its concept of the zero vector, vector mathematics discards zero-vector summations of active systems of vectors. It replaces such a summation with a zero vector. This is fine for mathematics as an abstract system, but it is in error when applied to real electromagnetic force fields of nature.

In the abstract mathematics, a vector zero summation is made the “absence of all finite vectors”. Further, all vector zeros are made equal. No concept of the “internal stress” of the zero vector exists in abstract vector mathematics.

However, physically the zero summation or “balancing” of vector forces in a medium represents stress in that medium. In the physical case, a vector zero summation system of non-zero vectors has a dynamic substructure, and this substructure is an individual attribute.[[ix]]

(Coming Up Next – Einstein’s Vector Potentials)

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[1] EM: in this expression, EM is the term used to connote electromagnetic field effects.

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[i] Bearden, “The Source Charge Problem: Its Solution and Implications”

[ii] Timothy H. Boyer, “The Classical Vacuum”, Scientific American, pp.70-78, August 1985.

[iii] Robert Matthews, “Nothing like a Vacuum”, New Scientist, p. 30-33, 25 February 1995.

[iv] P. W. Milonni, “The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics”, Academic Press, New York, 1994.

[v] Timothy H. Boyer, “Random Electrodynamics: The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation”, Physical Review D, Vol. 11:4, pp.790-808, 15 February, 1975.

[vi] Mikel Bowuer, “Vacuum Energy, Problems and Perspectives,” About-Nature.net

[vii] Casimir Effect, ref.

[viii] B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff, “Physics of the Zero-Point Field: Implications for Inertia, Gravitation and Mass”, Speculations in Science and Technology, Vol. 20, pp. 99-114, 1997.

[ix] Bearden, T., Fer de Lance: Vector Mathematics Has a Fundamental Problem. 2nd ed. 2002

In the physical case, several changes to the axioms of abstract vector mathematics are required. (1) the “potential” of a vector zero must be taken into account, such as is represented by the sum of the squares of the magnitudes of its vector components. (2) the specific deterministic pattern of the vector components comprising the zero must be taken into account. (3) The dynamic variation in both the deterministic directions and deterministic magnitudes of the components and of the overall pattern must be taken into account. (4) Frequencies of the changes in the direction, magnitude, and actual makeup of the vector zero must now be accounted for. That is, time and wavelengths are rigorously aspects of the vector zero, and these may be deterministic variables. Since time itself is now a variable aspect of the vector, the vector zero system can affect its “rate of time flow” in the observer’s system. (5) Since a “reference vector zero” can be established at any point of a vector magnitude, then individual vectors themselves may have dynamic substructures inside a special “zero reference” in and on the vector. The patterned potential of a vector is a reality.

This leads to a system of “vectors nested inside vectors” ad infinitum. In other words, it leads to an infinite-dimensional system, and the “opening” of every finite closed vector system through its vector zeroes.