Y-Bias and Angularity:C

The Dynamics of Self-Organizing Criticality

From the Zero Point to Infinity

David G. Yurth

Donald Ayres, A.E.

August 2005

Einstein’s Vector Magnetic Potentials

Einstein introduced the concept that only the vector magnetic potential has a physical reality in electrodynamics. He postulated that the electric and magnetic fields are merely concepts we have developed to accommodate the reciprocity observed in field interactions between charge ensembles. Most modern physicists still do not accept this assertion. This remains true, even though more recent experimental research [the Aharonov-Bohm experiment] conclusively demonstrates that the A field is real (the experiment shows that A can alter the quantum wave function) [even] when all other EM effects have been completely shielded out.[[i]]

For years a controversy has raged around the Aharonov-Bohm effect, which demonstrates the reality of the Einstein vector potentials, among other things. In 1986, most physicists finally accepted the AB effect with its implications (see Physics Today, Jan. ’86). However, in the intervening 20 years since his work was completed, no changes have yet been made to EM theory or the basic classical approach to electrical physics and engineering[[ii]] as taught in colleges and universities.

Whittaker’s Electrodynamic Potential

In E.T. Whitaker’s classical 1902-1903 proofs [[iii]], we find a categorical statement about the nature of Zero Point interactions. Whittaker’s formulation addresses the fundamental issue of the scalar parameter referred to in the literature as ‘Potential.’ In mathematics, potential is described in terms of the intensity of some field or between interacting fields. Whittaker showed that any scalar EM potential is composed of a harmonic set of bidirectional phase-conjugated longitudinal EM wave pairs. He further showed that any EM field or wave, etc., can be decomposed into differential functions which are comprised of two scalar potentials. By applying Whittaker’s 1903 decomposition of the scalar potential to the two scalar potentials described in his 1904 paper, and then applying the proper differential dynamics, we find that all EM fields, potentials, and waves are composed of internal structure and moving internal parts continuously being ‘replaced’, as described in Van Flandern’s analogy [[iv]]. This description provides a valuable insight into the conundrum described by Bearden which constitutes a broken symmetry.

Whittaker’s concept of potential is structured to show ‘potential’ as a bi-directional energy flow.[[v]] In his book Gravitobiology, T.E. Bearden [[vi]] writes,

“Space-time in a sense may be regarded as a conglomerate of potentials – including the scalar EM potentials [as described by Whittaker]. Therefore, the simplest structure of EM scalar potentials (trapped EM energy) is also nominally composed of such spin-2 gravitons.[[vii]]”

According to this construction, the structure of the scalar EM potentials which operate in the Physical Vacuum, as described by Whittaker, consists of coupled photon/anti-photon pairs. These are the virtual ensembles referred to elsewhere in the literature. The concept of the anti-photon has been posited by Bearden, Santilli and Evans as the embodiment of the reverse-time process. Therefore, any potential field can be considered as a bi-directional electromagnetic process/anti-process. Accordingly, power can be produced by means of fluctuations of field potential only in terms of an inner field structural imbalance. Bidirectional energy flow can be mathematically presented in terms of the equation

0 = A + B F.2 ([1])

where zero balance [0] is created as a product of the interaction of two opposite processes [A] and [B]. If one of the processes [for example, A] is deemed the source of power (Zero Point vacuum EM potential as the power source), then according to the thermodynamic formula which describes the dynamics of chronal gradients and chronal pressures [E = gradj(t)], the other part of the balanced system, defined as process B, must also be changed.

The interaction between virtual ensembles which interact to create potential can therefore be described in terms of the following equation:

0 = DA + DB F.3 ([2])

Dt Dt

and in another view

DA/Dt = – DB/Dt F.4([3])

If the time attribute exhibited by B is considered as reversed time tr and the time attribute exhibited by process A is considered to be direct time td , we obtain the equation for a total energy conservation law that takes into consideration the interactions of direct time and reversed time as energy processes,

DA = DB F.5([4])

Dtd Dtry

When this equation is considered carefully, we can draw no other conclusion except that the amount of power which can be tapped from the Physical Vacuum via the Zero Point is unlimited. Since entropy, and therefore ‘time’ as a linear expression of entropy, does not operate at the Zero Point, it must also follow that there is no limit to the power extraction potential via the Physical Vacuum, if a change of value in A is always offset by a corresponding change in the value of B. As Melehey rightly suggests, then, the conservation laws as applied to energy must become an expression of the conservation of time balance at the Zero Point.

This formulation leads us to a single, unequivocal conclusion:

The Energy of all processes in direct time must be equal to the Energy of all processes in reversed time. [[viii]]

This formulation constitutes a unification of Newtonian mechanics (action – reaction) with current formulations of conservation laws. In the general view, it can properly be viewed as the Law of Energetic Balance. It is important to note in this context that zero is not nothing. It is an expression of a totally balanced structure. While we recognize that the structure of time can be described in more complex terms than as simply a bi-directional “time/reverse-time” function, we also recognize that this simplified expression is apt.

The abstract concepts found in the ancient literature reflect this attribute of natural processes. The ancient Chinese symbol of the ‘Yin/Yang’ represents the embodiment of balance, framed within the construct of the zero. In the Vedas, as well as in the ancient literature of the Egyptians, the Kabala and the secrets of the Pythagoreans, we find analogues to this expression.[[ix]]

The fundamental point to be made here is this: at the Zero Point, where virtual ensembles interact to create the field potentials which then self-organize to form L4 at all subsequent scales, the amount of energy available to support the physical structures and functions of the material world is unlimited. Further, it is evident that the primal attributes of timeless balance are intrinsic to both the structure and function of everything which emerges, organizes and operates beyond the Zero Point. This insight gives us a wholly new vantage point from which to consider how Bohm’s Implicate Order and Bell’s ‘Non-local Effects at a Distance’ actually operate in the macrocosm.

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[1] F.2: 0 = A+B. This expression means that two equivalent processes [A] and [B] which each flow in opposite directions produce the net result of zero.

[2] F.3: This expression says that as field A changes direction over an increment of time, if field B also changes direction in the opposite sign over the same increment of time, the net product of their interaction is zero.

[3] F.4: This expression simply expresses the algebraic equivalence of the two field effects by moving one to the other side of the equation.

[4] F.5: This formula describes the Dt in terms of its direction. The sub-script d suggests that time is moving in a forward, direction vector. The sub-script r suggests that time is moving in a reverse direction.

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[i] www.enterprisemission.com/moon6.htm

[ii] In 1959, Aharonov and Bohm published a fundamental paper in Physical Review which pointed out the QM implications of potentials as the real entities, while force fields were derived effects. They showed that, even in the presence of zero EM force fields, the potentials may still exist and produce real effects in physical systems. They also suggested experiments to prove these predictions.[from Bearden’s “Fer de Lance]

[iii] E. T. Whittaker, “On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics,” Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355; — “On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372

[iv] Van Flandern, Analogy ref.

[v] On the Expression of the Electromagnetic Field due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions, by E.T.Whittaker, 1903, Published in Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Vol.1, 1904, p.367-372. Also it is included in Annex C, Gravitobilogy, T.E.Bearden, p. c-1.

[vi] Gravitobiology, by T.E.Bearden, 1991, Tesla Book Company, P.O.Box 121873 Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-50553.

[vii] Bearden, Gravitobiology, ref.

[viii] Frolov, A.V., Report on the International Conference “New Ideas in Natural Sciences”, St. Petersburg, June, 1996.

[ix] Frolov, A.V., ibid.