Y-Bias and Angularity:©

The Dynamics of Self-Organizing Criticality

From the Zero Point to Infinity

David G. Yurth

Donald Ayres, A.E.

August 2005

All Rights Reserved

Abstract:

The quest of modern physics has been to develop a model which correctly describes the role and dynamics of the interactions by which Nature works. In order for the model which describes these interactions to be robust, it must not only accommodate phenomena which are known to occur, but must also accommodate all rigorously documented phenomena, predict phenomena which are as-yet undiscovered, and allow for the inclusion of all rigorously observed, impeccably documented, carefully reported data derived from all sources. To be adequate, any universally applicable physical model must also accommodate the contemporaneous interaction between Descartes’ ‘physical stuff’ and ‘spirit stuff’ with equal cogency.

The current model fails to rise to this standard. It is based on a number of fundamentally flawed, incomplete and arbitrarily imposed assumptions. In the 35 years since the Standard Model was improved by the Copenhagen School, the reductionist methodology which typifies scientific research has run up hard against the most daunting of all Nature’s mysteries. Experimental results provided by the most powerful microscopes, largest telescopes, fastest linear accelerators and other advanced devices, demonstrate that there is an underlying order in the cosmos which has not yet been understood. The shortcomings of the Standard Model are ameliorated by the application of the rules of Self-Organizing Criticality in complex, open systems [SOC][[i]] as integrated with the dynamics described as Y-Bias and Angularity.[[ii]]

Concept: Y-Bias/Angularity & Self-Organizing Criticality (SOC):

The authors provide a simple, elegant model of scalar interactions, which accommodates phenomena not heretofore accommodated, by describing how the fundamental processes of Y-Bias Interactions [[iii]] and optimal concomitant Angularity combine to operationalize the autopoietic processes found in Self-Organizing Criticality [[iv]] [SOC] as described by Bak etal. These dynamics combine to produce the space-time continuum described by Minkowski as 4-space [L4], defined in terms of time, matter, energy and Local-Linear/Non-Local, Non-Linear [L2/N2L2] field effects.

Intrinsic to the process of unraveling this fundamental mystery is the authors’ attempt to define three essential and heretofore inadequately defined components of the SOC process: (1) mass, (2) magnetism, and (3) gravitational field effects. In addition, the authors integrate the ‘undulating waveform’ attributes defined in Whittaker’s famous 1903 formulation with Mandelbrot’s fractal geometries and the Fibonacci Series to provide a model of organizational dynamics which resolves the cosmological issues defined as:

* The Antimatter Problem * The Galaxy Formation Problem * The Isotrophy Problem * The Flatness Problem

Finally, the authors provide a scalar roadmap which describes how matter, energy, time and all other field effects arise from the Physical Vacuum [[v]] via the Zero Point [[vi]] to constitute L4 at ten distinct scales of quantum complexity. The schema posited here accommodates the concomitant role and dynamics of dissipative structures [Prigogine, Stengers etal] and self-organizing criticality [Bak etal] at each of the ten scales and, further, illustrates how matter, energy, time and field effects are generated as increasingly complex products of the Y-Bias interactions between charge ensembles occurring at the finest scales. Digital images of archetypal shapes and forms occurring at the Third through Tenth scales illustrate how Y-Bias interactions combine to produce the effects found in all SOC systems throughout the cosmos. The interactions attributed to the first three scales are described in conceptual and mathematical terms, supported by examples of the behaviors and attributes associated with SOC evolution at the finest scales.

Background:

The Standard Model of Physics and the General Theory of Relativity [GTR] hold that all matter, energy and field forces were created at the instant of the Big Bang [e.g. Weinberg etal], and that time, gravitational force, electromagnetic forces, and the strong and weak [van der Waals] nuclear forces are distinct, mutually exclusive field effects acting a priori throughout all of L4. In the alternative, Y-Bias and Angularity Theory proposes that matter, energy, time and all field effects are constantly being constructed and deconstructed from the Physical Vacuum, via the Zero Point, as a perpetual cycle of Self-Organizing Criticality and structural dissipation.

The authors posit that the critical dynamics which drive the operational mechanics of the SOC processes, which also operate to create/deconstruct L4, can be defined in terms of the Y-Bias interactions occurring between virtual charge ensembles and virtual photons in the Physical Vacuum, via the Zero Point, and at all subsequent scales. Increasing complexity in the organization of matter and energy occurs at successive scales of organization to produce the observable phenomena which populate L4. It is further posited that the degree of angularity between such interactions is definitive, determining at the primary scalar interaction [for example] whether time domain and spin-polarized charge ensembles will remain viable and robust [i.e., rise above the 1/f noise threshold quanta] and subsequently combine with other equally robust interaction products to increase organizational complexity and propagate field effects, or, in the alternative, fail to achieve coherence and thus deconstruct to their prior, virtual, and undifferentiated states in the Physical Vacuum.

For those interactions which achieve coherence at the primary scale, the angularity of the subsequent Y-Bias interactions determines whether the eventual manifestation will subsequently become observable as matter, energy, time and/or field effects. Y-Bias interactions define the nature and extent to which all scalar interactions in the Physical Vacuum satisfy the SOC demands of fractal boundedness or unboundedness, which are observed to operate across the infinite expanses of time and space, in realtime. By this means, materiality in the physical world eventually unfolds and enfolds at all scales, as Bohm rightly suggested. While the dynamics and mechanics of SOC systems are neither widely addressed nor actually accommodated by the Standard Model, they are nevertheless rigorously observed and reported throughout scientific literature. The work of Bak and others demonstrates, and Y-Bias/Angularity Theory holds, that the cosmos is a single, open, complex SOC system at all scales.

Prigogine and Stengers [[vii]] were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their breakthrough work in the field of dissipative structures. Their work supported subsequent experimental and theoretical advancements provided by Bak [[viii]] and his colleagues at the Brookhaven National Laboratories, which resulted in the explication and rigorous experimental verification of the set of rules which has come to be referred to in the literature as the Law of Self-organizing Criticality [SOC]. The significance of Bak’s work is that it provides the definitive theoretical basis describing how the cosmos simultaneously and catastrophically annihilates and automatically organizes matter and energy at all scales, to create and deconstruct the physical universe we observe. SOC systems exhibit four uniform characteristics which have been rigorously shown to operate universally and uniformly at all scales throughout the cosmos. These include (1) logarithmic power law relationships between related events in complex, open systems or sub-systems, (2) punctuated equilibrium, (3) fractal geometries defined by the Fibonacci series and (4) 1/ƒ quantum noise thresholds.

While the attributes of SOC systems are well known and have been rigorously documented by a global community of qualified researchers, the dynamics which operationalize the mechanics of such systems have not heretofore been clearly understood. Several reasons are cited for the general failure to develop a fully evolved model describing the primary scalar interactions intrinsic to SOC systems. D. Ayres etal has articulated and experimentally verified the nature, role and dynamics associated with the magnitude and angularity of SOC interactions. His observations and writings identify this body of knowledge as “Y-Bias and Angularity Theory.” [[ix]]

According to Ayres etal, all interactions in the cosmos can be described in terms of (1) the magnitude of the weighted waveform and vector velocities exerted along the Y-axis of one interacting component upon the X/Z axis trajectory of another, (2) the angle of intersection between them, and (3) described in terms of the resultant weighted waveform and vector velocities, time domain and spin-polarization effects which are manifest as the product of their interaction. The authors assert that this dynamic, which has heretofore not been incorporated into the Standard Model, provides the missing link to understanding how nature works as an SOC system at all scales.

Entropy Conversion and Dissipative Structures:

In their seminal book Order Out of Chaos, Nobel laureates Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers [[x]] provide a road map for man’s new dialogue with nature. Their work broke totally new ground when it was published because it brought a simple, elegant order to the search for an answer to the question,

“If the universe operates in a perpetual state of chaos [which was what was believed before the book was published], why hasn’t it self-destructed long before now?”

The corollary to this question is equally compelling. It asks,

“If entropy is the primary dynamic which operates to determine the nature of the cosmos, how can autopoiesis [self-organization in open, complex systems] be simultaneously accommodated? [[xi]]

The underlying phenomena which give rise to this question revolve around a condition described in mathematical constructs as “entropy”. Entropy is a mathematical construct used to describe the state of chaos which exists in a given system as the result of irreversible dissipative processes. [[xii]] The work of Stengers and Prigogine did not address similar effects arising from internally generated self-organizing quantum interactions, all of which taken together constitute the entire set of dynamics which are known to drive autopoietic SOC systems. In any system which has not reached a state of self-organizing criticality [defined as the point at which creative and/or catastrophic events occur spontaneously within the system, without the intervention of outside forces], the rules of chaos and entropy operate with predictable consistency.

The Origins of Entropy

The coherent integration of disordered virtual energy [undifferentiated information] which operates in the Physical Vacuum, and the conversion of this virtual energy into observable energy at the primary scale [via what has come to be referred to in the literature as the Zero Point], is the process by which the field of constructive entropy [specifically, the Physical Vacuum], expressed as an infinite realm of self-referential statistical probabilities [Kafatos and Nadeau describe this field as ‘the background reality-as-it-is] [[xiii]], is converted to deconstructive entropy, as observed in L4. Bearden’s hypothesis suggests this process occurs as follows [[xiv]]:

* At the scale of the Physical Vacuum, a charged scalar virtual ensemble continuously absorbs disordered virtual photon energy from its seething vacuum energy exchange.

* The energy DE ([1]) of each virtual energy photon absorbed is transformed into a virtual change Dm ([2]) in the mass of the charged particle, by (DE)/c2 = Dm ([3]).

* Since mass is unitary, its successive virtual energy state causes Dmi to integrate coherently, shown as Dm = Dm1 + Dm2 +…+ Dmi +…. This process reorders the absorbed disordered energy, but as a summation change Dm of mass-energy until the quantum threshold is reached.

* When sufficient virtual mass-energy change Dm is accumulated, there is sufficient mass-energy excitation 1/ƒ = DE = (Dm)c2 ([4]) for emitting an observable photon.

* Because it is incessantly perturbed by vacuum fluctuations (zitterbewegung), once the quantum threshold (1/ƒ) is reached, the excited charged particle abruptly and forcibly decays by emitting a real, observable photon. At that moment, the coherent integration of virtual energy into observable energy has been accomplished.

Bearden’s schema suggests that interactions at the primary scale, which produce the set of results [time, matter, energy, field effects] observed to arise from the primary set of causal dynamics, occur at the Zero Point. What is not described in Bearden’s hypothesis is the set of rules which govern (1) the unitary nature of mass, (2) how virtual energy is absorbed by virtual charge ensembles, (3) how virtual ensembles interact to exhibit the characteristics of charge, (4) why some charge ensembles become robust and others do not, and (5) how the conversion of virtual energy by charge ensembles eventually becomes differentiated as matter, energy, time domain polarity or field effects at the primary, secondary and tertiary scales, and so on.

The authors posit that the determining dynamics which operate to facilitate and regulate the absorption of undifferentiated virtual energy and the conversion of this positive entropy to constitute matter, energy, time and field effects, all of which continuously demonstrate entropy [emission of real photons] above the tertiary scale of evolution, are defined as the Y-Bias Effect, as determined by the Angularity of virtual charge ensemble interactions.

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[1] DE: In mathematical expressions, this term contains two elements. D is referred to as ‘delta.’ It connotes a change or difference between states. E is used an abbreviation for energy.

[2] Dm: In mathematical expressions, this term contains D, the ‘delta’ or change value, as well as the symbol conventionally use to connote ‘Mass.’

[3] (DE)/c2 = Dm: This expression is read as ‘delta [change] in E [energy] divided by the square of C [speed of light] equals an equivalent change in mass. When rearranged in simple algebraic terms, by multiplying both sides of the equation by the value ‘c2’, we derive Einstein’s famous equation E = MC2.

[4] 1/ƒ = DE = (Dm)c2: this expression means that when the quantum-defined minimal level of noise is equal to the change in energy, it is also equal to the concomitant change in mass.

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[i] Bak, Per, How Nature Works, Springer-Verlag (New York @ Copernicus) 1996.

[ii] Ayres, D., Y-Bias and Angularity, ref.

[iii] Ayres, ibid

[iv] Bak loc.cit.

[v] Physical Vacuum – definition [QED, SED]

[vi] Zero Point – definition [10-33 cm, Planck distance h + Planck unit of time t]

[vii] Prigogine, I., Stengers, I., Order Out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue With Nature, Bantam, New York (April 1984) ISBN 0-553-34082-4.

[viii] Bak, ibid

[ix] Ayres Y-Bias/Angularity files, ref.

[x] Prigogine, I., Stengers, I., Order Out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue With Nature, Bantam, New York (April 1984) ISBN 0-553-34082-4.

[xi] AUTOPOIESIS = the process whereby an organization produces itself. An autopoietic organization is an autonomous <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/autonomy.html> and self-maintaining unity which contains component-producing processes. The components, through their interaction, generate recursively the same network of processes which produced them. An autopoietic system is operationally closed and structurally state determined with no apparent inputs and outputs. A cell, an organism, and perhaps a corporation are examples of autopoietic systems. See allopoiesis. <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/ALLOPOIESIS.html> (F. Varela) Literally, self-production. The property of systems <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/SYSTEMs.html> whose components (1) participate recursively in the same network <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/NETWORK.html> of productions that produced them, and (2) realize the network <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/NETWORK.html> of productions as a unity <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/UNITY.html> in the space in which the components exist (after Varela) (see recursion <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/RECURSION.html> ). Autopoiesis is a process whereby a system produces its own organization <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/ORGANIZATIO.html> and maintains and constitutes itself in a space. E.g., a biological cell, a living organism and to some extend a corporation and a society as a whole. <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/WHOLE.html> (krippendorff <pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/Kripp.html> )

[xii] Entropy – definition sources, ref.

[xiii] Kafatos, M., Nadeau, R., The Conscious universe, by,(1990) Springer-Verlag New York, Inc . See also Alred Korzybsky, Science and Sanity: an Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (1995) 5th Edition, Institute of General Semantics. See also J. Campbell, Grammatical Man: Information, Entropy, Language and Life, Simon & Schuster, New York (1982).

[xiv] Dr. Tom Bearden, President of the Society of Distinguished Scientists in the United States.